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Rynda and guard: who guarded the Russian tsars and sovereigns Moscow

Who guarded the Russian tsars after the vanished medieval warriors, and Peter the life guards has not yet appeared? Today we will talk about the forgotten Royal bodyguards of the XVI and XVII centuries.

The beginning of the XVI century creation of the centralized Russian state had forced the Grand Prince of Moscow to establish a safe guard, which could entrust the life of the sovereign great powers and members of his family.

At that time, to be the ruler was considered a very dangerous business. Emperors, kings, Dukes and princes and then tried to lose the most ingenious ways, ranging from assassins and ending the military rebellions. Therefore, the units of the Royal bodyguards existed throughout Europe.

Tradition and innovation

In the Russian principalities, one of which was Moscow, since the days of Ancient Russia there were the Prince's army, consisting of senior and Junior squads. In high were the boyars — free landowners had the right to choose which Prince to serve. In the Junior served ordinary soldiers.

They were princely court, of which was gathered footage for assignments sovereign people.

With the consolidation of power of the Moscow Great Prince of the old feudal order began to chafe ruler. Dependence on the boyar military force was perceived as a nuisance, which should be as soon as possible to get rid of. It is rather strange to entrust their own security to people who have the right at any time to get up and leave the service to another Prince.

And it is fine for Russia. So no — at least in Lithuania go. The rulers of Moscow, on the one hand, began to refuse the boyars in the right to leave, considering it a betrayal, and decided to create subordinate only to the Grand Duke regiment, which was totally dependent on his mercy.

Sovereign regiment

So when Ivan IV in 1549 appeared the Tsar and Grand Duke of the regiment, formed in Vladimir from not accustomed to "swing right" of knights.

The following year, after an unsuccessful military campaign against Kazan, Ivan ordered to create "the chosen thousand" in the 1078 best warriors who have been bestowed estate near Moscow.

Sovereign regiment not only became a life-guard of the Moscow Tsar, but turned into an elite military unit that took part in many battles. The importance of the regiment was emphasized by the fact that the next Tsar, Fyodor Ivanovich, his commander was the future successor on the throne of Moscow — Boris Godunov.

To enter the sovereign's regiment was a great honour. Not only is it well rewarded — the Moscow nobles lived much more than provincial, but before the servicemen opened and the prospect of a good career. Caught the eyes of the king and showing ingenuity, you will soon get a good rank in the army or the state apparatus.

In the service

The next century is not for nothing called the "Bundesliga". The need of loyal and well-trained military force grew as Moscow has ignited the fires of uprisings and rebellions. So in the second half of the XVII century in the Prince's regiment was listed for more than 2,600 of the nobility. A real military force was much greater: each gentleman brought in a system of chelyabintsev — armed and trained military servants.

The last thing, which was attended by the sovereign's regiment, was the Azov campaign 1696. After the Peter I conceived and began to implement large-scale military reform the Russian army. So to replace the old guard came the new — Peter Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments who had yet to prove themselves and to achieve a privileges to be the most approximate to the king.

In the Azov campaign were 37 horse's mouth, headed by the Governor by Prince Lvov. Many soldiers distinguished themselves in battle, and Peter ordered them to go to Europe to study the military, artillery and seamen.

The capture of the Turkish fortress Azov by Peter I, 1696 year

Sovereign nobles and "Stremyanny" the archers

The sovereign's regiment were always dressed and armed in accordance with Russian tradition and very much resembled the famous French Musketeers of the king. He was equestrian, but all the soldiers were trained in infantry combat and were armed with firearms.

The coats and hats of the guards was red, as bladed weapons were used sabres, which are often lavishly decorated with precious metals and stones and heavy concari on the Polish model, suitable for ramming thrust, effective against armored cavalry.

According to the memoirs of contemporaries, the main missions of the Sovereign of the regiment was an extraordinary luxury all shone from the expensive fabrics, gold brocade, embroidery and pearls.

To the best of the best treated and Stremyannaya Streltsy regiment — elite Moscow Musketeers, which was considered something of a "younger guard". This was a normal infantry, which was assigned guard duty in the Kremlin. In war and during visits of the king outside of Moscow, Kazan regiment literally "followed the Imperial stirrup", guarding the person of the monarch.

From the time of Ivan the terrible to Peter I the regiment wore caftans "cercatore" — that is a bright raspberry color with blue lining. Weapons, "the Kremlin" Streltsov was the same as the regular regiments: the matchlock gun, sword or a heavy Western sword, Berdysh, and sometimes a short peak.

The Royal squires

But these parts are answered, so to speak, for "external security perimeter".

Much closer to the king stood other people Rynda. This court's position came from the Royal squires, who were appointed by the young courtiers and was accompanied first Grand princes and later kings in military campaigns, was responsible for their weapons and armor, stood on guard at the Tsar's tent.

In the campaign there are several horse a bell always accompanied the king, were in the vicinity and was responsible for his life. During the ceremonies, four bell was definitely the throne.

The uniform of the squires were white across the shoulders was worn for two massive gold chain, a symbol of their rank. On his head wore a high hat golfnow as boyars, but not sable, and white Fox. Armed Rynda, ceremonial hatchets, which they called "the Embassy" and sometimes medieval swords. During the mourning for the members of the Royal family of the ship's bell changed dressy white clothes in mourning, is made of colored cloth of dark colours.

"Tsar Ivan the terrible surrounded by personal security", artist — A. Shumeiko

New guard — "funny"

In 1683, the young Tsar Peter decided to take military fun. Then for him and the courtiers of the Royal sleeping bags were made kaftans green, bought weapons, flutes and drums. And in the fall of next year near the village of Preobrazhenskoye near Moscow began to build a mock fortress of Presburg. Thus began the story of the next generation Russian guard regiment.

In 1687 the number of "comic" has become so large that they have formed a second regiment, which was named Semenov, by the name of another village, inhabited by the Royal grooms and falconers, who became soldiers of the new military unit. Already at that time the completion of the Preobrazhensky and Semyonovsky was carried out by men selected from the regiment of the Sovereign, so that the connection of the new and the old guard was very close.

When in 1697 Peter went on a long European tour together with the Great Embassy, he formed his own convoy, we have a team of bodyguards, only of the Preobrazhensky regiment, which fully trust.

The next milestone in the history of the Royal guard was in 1700, when shortly before the battle of Narva, the Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments received the name the life guard.

Michael Deunov

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